Climate change adds further injustice to an already unfair world.
French president Emmanuel Macron
And words from another internationalist …
Climate change adds further injustice to an already unfair world.
French president Emmanuel Macron
And words from another internationalist …
A very fine post at Eli’s blog for students of statistics, meteorology, and climate (like myself) titled:
This and the graph from Menne at the top shows that Karl’s trick is working. Although we only have seven to eight years of the CRN, that is enough to show that neighboring US HCN and CRN stations measure the same high frequency variations in temperature anomalies and it is unlikely that long term trends will differ. It is also a clear validation of GISSTemp’s assumption that measurements at locations considerable distance from each other are strongly correlated and that one can make use of that correlation to estimate temperature anomalies at locations which are not directly measured.
Surveys can be corrected for population density if you know what the population density is, and area averages are easy to do. Over-representation of urban/suburban stations can thus be corrected for if one really wants to know the answer.
Note this special “Updated Post-Election Edition” of this excellent book was not updated with 45‘s ascendency, but, rather, that of President Barack Obama.
Published by Penguin-Random-House, it is one of the favorite things I’ve read, and I don’t often read about politics or political history.
Forboding quote. Remember, this was written in 2009:
If, as I will argue in this book, America is now ill with a powerful mutant strain of intertwined ignorance, anti-rationalism, and anti-intellectualism — as opposed to the recognizable cyclical strains the past — the virulence of the current outbreak is inseparable from an unmindfulness that is, paradoxically, both aggressive and passive. This condition is aggressively promoted by everyone, from politicians to media executives, whose livelihood depends on a public that derives its opinions from sound bits and blogs, and it is passively accepted by a public in thrall to the serpent promising effortless enjoyment from the fruit of the tree of infotainment. Is there still time and will for cultural conservationists to ameliorate the degenerative effects of the poisoned apple? Insofar as the weight one’s will is thrown onto the scales of history, one lives in the stubborn hope that it might be so.
It is ironic that this is being posted on a blog, and that the blog’s author is employed by a company which obtains much of its revenue from “a public that derives its opinions from sound bits and blogs”. Still, in the same way that some saw the foreshadowings of the 1987 market crash(*), an anniversary which was just celebrated today, it is the responsibility of those inculcated in the rough process leading to catastrophe to cry out the dangers.
The darkness drops again but now I know
That twenty centuries of stony sleep
Were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle,
And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,
Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?
That’s by William Butler Yeats, who “Being Irish, … had an abiding sense of tragedy, which sustained him through temporary periods of joy”.
This is Professor Susan Jacoby with a more recent look. Let’s just say Silicon Valley’s computing and Internet revolution does not survive unscathed.
Not a recommendation, but a sketch of what’s possible.
And it’s also a sketch of how much The Commons provides.
Love your home.
The H-field is measured in amperes per metre (A/m) in SI units, and in oersteds (Oe) in cgs units.
This is an assortment of bits and pieces I’ve wanted to blog about, but, given the ever increasing Pile of Matter Important sitting over there in the corner, I probably won’t. Maybe I’ll come back to them.
I have left this post completely Uncategorized.
First, my blog post of a couple of days back on gun statistics made me wonder, in contemplation, whether the number of mass murders could be used as a surrogate for Readily Available Violence, and, failing that, number of firearm suicides and homicides. Whichever measure is used, the little project I wanted to do, and still may someday, is to try to fit that to a Bass diffusion model for product introduction. Now, in practice, this would be basically repeating Jim Duggan’s work with Bass diffusion using deSolve, albeit on death data, but it would let me play with deSolve for a bit, which I’ve long wanted to do, and would let me see how hard estimating coefficients in Bass diffusions actually are. What’s the product here? Well, it’s not deaths. I felt that if I could back out the growth rate of such a product and then, say, match it with estimates of gun availability that might take a step in establishing a(nother) causal link. But, we’ll see.
Second, and speaking of things causal, out of some frustration with what passes as acceptable time series study these days (see also), and the tendency to throw lots of data at algorithms which “thrive on noise”, I whimsically chased down Kantz and Schreiber’s Nonlinear Time Series Analysis (2nd edition, 2005 reprint, Cambridge University Press), as backed by the R package nonlinearTseries. I’ve written about Professor George Sugihara and colleague’s convergent cross mapping before, but never delved into this approach to things any further. There is an update of the field by Bradley and Kantz from 2015, which appeared in Chaos, but I was mostly interested in seeing how practical this kind of stuff was. I had read reports here and there that naively done CCM was unstable, but I want to see. I’ll let you know what I learn.
Third, I have a large stack of technical papers to read, some work-related, mostly statistics- and climate-related, with an emphasis upon oceanography and engineering. This includes things like T. L. Thorarinsdottir, P. Guttorp, M. Drews, P. Skougaard Kaspersen, and K. de Bruin on “Sea level adaptation decisions under uncertainty” from 2017, Benjamin Fish, Lev Reyzin, and Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein on “Sublinear-Time adaptive data analysis”, and Martha W. Buckley and John Marshall on “Observations, inferences, and mechanisms of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: A review”.
Fourth, I’m inching through a chapter of O. C. Ibe’s Elements of Random Walk and Diffusion Processes, specifically, his 9 on “Fractional Calculus and its Applications”. I want to understand that, and things like Hosking’s 1981 paper on “Fractional differencing” (from Hydrology), but I’m also intrigued with the possibility of using Levy walks (Ibe’s Chapter 8) to search Bayesian posteriors and do other kinds of stochastic optimization. In fact, I’ve outlined a paper along those lines, but I need to master some mathematics first before I’m ready to proceed.
Happy holiday weekend everyone. I know there’s been a lot of racial inconsideration for indigenous peoples and the like, and I try to act to what the best current sense of how to respect peoples is, but it’s easy to trip on labels. Sure, labels can hurt people’s feelings. But, in my training and world, what you name something has no effect on what it is or how it behaves. And I’m concerned that an overemphasis upon Proper Naming is a step down the path of acting as if there’s any substance to Grounded Theory, or as if there’s any validity in something I read by a Trump supporter a day ago, that because they won the Presidency, they could now dictate what constitutes truth.
The climate system is an angry beast and we are poking it with sticks.
(Hat tip to Yale Climate Connections)
And that does not include any governmental incentive payments from utilities. These were:
Thanks to everyone, especially to The Team, to Professor Baez, to the Funders, and to University of California, Riverside.
I don’t identify the Team because some don’t want to receive public accolades, and I don’t feel I should acknowledge some but not all.
(Update, 11th November 2017)
That’s from The Economist.
What’s odd about the rate of increase in size of casualties is that, typically, if a process is stationary and is “typical”, for instance, governed by a Generalized Extreme Value distribution of Type II or Fréchet: You don’t get records broken even at a constant rate. Interarrival times are longer and longer for succeeeding breaks of records. In this case, time between new records is shortening.
The following figures are from:
|D. Hemenway, S. J. Solnick, “Children and unintentional firearm death”, Injury Epidemiology, 2(1), 2015 December.|
|M. Siegel, C. S. Ross, C. King, III, “The relationship between gun ownership and firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981–2010”, American Journal of Public Health, 103(11), 2013 November.|
Update, 5 October 2017
This is what I mean about guns being a public health hazard. And here are some ancillary facts:
Firearm deaths from all causes just about match deaths from motor vehicle per year, about 11 per 100,000 population each.
Cigarette smoking in all forms, including vape, and including secondhand smoke and affects on kids causes 150 deaths per 100,000 population per year.
There are 13 suicides per year per 100,000 population and of those 7 per year per 100,000 are firearm suicides.
There are 10 homicides per year per 200,000 population. Of those 7 are firearm homicides. Naturally, these include all terrorist attacks, which are completely negligible.
So, yes, smoking causes way more deaths than motor vehicles or firearms. Drug deaths cause a bit more per year. Most firearm deaths are suicides. And firearm deaths as homicides are half of the rate of suicides.
Accordingly, since guns are twice as likely to be used to kill yourself rather than be the device of your demise by someone else, you’re better, all things being equal, not having a gun.
Oh, and don’t smoke.
Childproof safety locks for guns were proposed as far back as Mr D. V. Wesson. Yet 2-4 year olds have the highest rate of firearm deaths for such deaths under 11 y.o. Indeed, firearm deaths are about children killing children. Parents vastly underestimate if and how often their children have handled their guns. U.S. police officers are 30x more likely to be killed by a civilian than an officer in Germany.
It’s possible to make progress on this if it is viewed as the public health problem it is. There is clearly a cultural component. 97% of all child deaths are with a boy holding the gun. It begins by collecting information. 140 pieces of information are collected for each motor vehicle death.
(Slightly updated 2nd October 2017 to add a link to the Brattle Group’s report on the myth of baseload generation.)
Secretary of Energy Rick Perry has recently called for `baseload` coal and nuclear plants which are no longer competitive in the electricity marketplace to receive subsidies so they can remain in operation. He argues this is necessary in order to provide continuity of service of the electrical grid, which he deems to be a matter of national security. He argues the very conventional line that such baseload power is essential for continuity. Unfortunately, his own Department of Energy disagrees with his assertion, even if that report was apparently overruled. There is more coverage of what the draft study said here. And Brattle Group agrees. Full report is here.
But what is continuity of energy supply? Secretary Perry describes it as:
A reliable and resilient electrical grid is critical not only to our national and economic security, but also to the everyday lives of American families. A diverse mix of power generation resources, including those with on-site reserves, is essential to the reliable delivery of electricity — particularly in times of supply stress such as recent natural disasters. My proposal will strengthen American energy security by ensuring adequate reserve resource supply and I look forward to the Commission acting swiftly on it.
But facts are that baseload generation has nothing at all to do with reliable provision of electricity to American families. Far more important is a resilient transmission and distribution network. According to international measures, backed by a Congressional Research Service report which dates from 2012, the United States grid, nationally, is one of the least reliable electrical grids in the world, down more minutes per year per person than any other (“SAIDI”, see definitions) and more frequently (“SAIFI”, see definitions), in terms of numbers of incidents:
|Table 2. Comparison of International Reliability Indices|
|Source: Galvin Electricity Initiative, Electric Reliability: Problems, Progress and Policy Solutions.|
Note the comparison isn’t entirely fair to non-U.S. grids because, as the CRS Report notes, their definition of a minimum outage to be recorded is 3 minutes whereas the U.S. standard is 5 minutes.
Worse, consider the present plight of Puerto Rico, post Category 5 Hurricane Maria. Their grid, belonging to utility PREPA, has 80% of its transmission and distribution network down. It doesn’t matter if it can generate. There is no way of getting that power to their consumers.
National Grid gave a presentation at a Southern New England Meteorology Conference where they showed a graph giving projected total system time-to-repair as a function of maximum wind speed in Massachusetts. Their graph echoes well known empirical studies (see figure from that article below). They concluded that a repeat of the 1938 hurricane in Massachusetts would see a time-to-repair of 8 months.
- Improving reliability and resilience through efforts such as strengthening distribution poles and wires, improving flood protection, managing vegetation, and burying distribution lines, where feasible.
- Increasing system flexibility and robustness through energy storage or creation of microgrids. Grid modernization, smart meters, and synchrophasor technology can enable faster recovery from hurricane damage.
Preparing for severe weather events requires a balanced process. It is not economical to build transmission and distribution systems that can withstand every extreme, but infrequent, weather event. Developing rapid restoration capabilities can be more appropriate. It is important to balance increased system hardening with provisions for faster restoration.
The outage isolation process for many U.S. grids now is labor intensive and antiquated, in fact it is almost laughable. This has been known for a long time.
And the same smart grid which isolates outages, directs workers so their time and efforts are efficiently used, and sometimes even restores power itself can also manage and balance inputs from variable sources of generation, such as solar PV and wind.
So, Secretary Perry, the only kind of national and economic security you are talking about is to the wallets of coal and nuclear owners and stockholders, not electrical security for Americans.
If such subsidies are implemented, the end result will be an acceleration of grid defection by corporations and households, and a quickening of the utility company death spiral.
Hey, maybe that’s a good thing!
As tranquil streams that meet and merge and flow as one to seek the sea,
our kindred hearts and minds unite to build a church that shall be free —
Free from the bonds that bind the mind to narrow thought and lifeless creed;
free from a social code that fails to serve the cause of human need:
A freedom that reveres the past, but trusts the dawning future more;
and bids the soul, in search of truth, adventure boldly and explore.
Prophetic church, the future waits your liberating ministry;
go forward in the power of love, proclaim the truth that makes us free.
See also the interactive illustration here.
(The above is from Dr Carol Anne Clayson’s personal research page.)
EPA Anti-Leak Campaign
EPA employees are currently receiving instruction in “unauthorized disclosure training,” teaching them not to leak classified or near-classified information. This training is part of a government-wide eradication effort following National Security Advisor H.R. McMaster’s memo to agency heads on anti-leak instruction earlier in the week. Agency spokeswoman Liz Bowman had said in an email last week that, “EPA is developing training to support the White House’s request.”
Some are concerned that the focus on leaks will hurt morale and inhibit normal public communication of sometimes critical information. Others observe that EPA employees broadly seem more willing to talk to reporters. In comments to E&E News, a longtime EPA employee says, “Look, we have an administrator with staff who don’t even want to talk to those of us who have dedicated our lives to the agency and the public good. The public trusts us to protect the planet and their health, and I am going to honor that trust by staying true to the EPA mission.” Another longtime EPA employee said, “What’s concerning to workers is that [the Trump appointees] have no respect for the rule of law and could do anything to retaliate, even though it’s illegal. That’s why there’s a chilling effect.”
(As reported in the 25th September 2017 Policy News newsletter of the Ecological Society of America, of which I am a member.)
Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Secrecy: The American Experience, Yale University Press, 1998.
We do not believe any group of men adequate enough or wise enough to operate without scrutiny or without criticism. We know that the only way to avoid error is to detect it, that the only way to detect it is to be free to enquire. We know that the wages of secrecy are corruption. We know that in secrecy error, undetected, will flourish and subvert.
— J. Robert Oppenheimer, writing in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, quoted by Dr Lawrence M Krauss
Secrecy in science does not work. Withholding information does more damage to us than to our competitors.
— Edward Teller, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers, 1987 (1988), F. J. Duarte (ed.), p. 1165
From time to time there have been attempts at creating flavors of Unclassified information, such as Unclassified But Sensitive, or Administrative Sensitive. My last briefing on these subjects, from attorneys, indicated these flavors were indefensible in court, that there was no provision under the Espionage Act under which they could be enforced, and while Presidential Executive Orders could be issued to make life uncomfortable for people who breached things like Unclassified But Sensitive, in the end, there was no defensible “damage to the United States done” and, so, a violation could not be properly prosecuted under the Act. But I’m no attorney, and perhaps things have changed, in both directions. There are, for example, now Whistleblower Protections embodied in law.
So the idea of EPA personnel being briefed on the protection of “classified information” in the context of the EPA’s work, or, amazingly, “near classified information” is striking. And it has implications. It means that, in essence, objecting to the procedures and policy which a Presidential administration enacts which might, in the opinion of a government employee, be in violation of the law and, therefore, of the Constitution of the United States, can, in principle, be prosecuted with all the heavy apparatus of military secrecy and of the Espionage Act, emboldened as it has been with counter-terrorism emphasis.
There’s always been a hint of this in the wings. J Edgar Hoover of the FBI distrusted any demonstrators for any reason, wiretapping Martin Luther King, and, through the actions and inactions of his agents, causing the death of people protesting for civil rights, including people who in practice and statement were thoroughly committed to non-violent means. It is widely believed, and in some cases documented, that environmental protestors have also been targeted for at least scrutiny, and that this information has been improperly shared with companies targeted for non-violent demonstrations.
So, to me, the idea of briefings forbidding the revelation of “near classified information” is the opening of a gambit which could end in it being declared un-American and illegal for people to not use or burn fossil fuels. That is a big stretch, I know, and extreme, I know, but the idea of imposing some kind of military discipline upon an agency which exists to review and operate in as much a spirit of transparency as it can is a gross violation of the public trust and of the public’s right to know. EPA employees report that Administrator Pruitt has armed guards, and that no one is allowed to record or take notes or cell phones or computers when they meet with him. Apart from that being fundamentally in conflict with the operation of an agency which, by statute, is required to be open and available, there is such a thing as the Government Records Act, and all meetings at the highest levels are supposed to be recorded, at least for posterity.
Accordingly, these reports are alarming, at least. Does the EPA have an Judicial Advocate office like military services do? I do not believe they do.
Maybe they should.
And perhaps, in addition to expressing concerns about policy, environmental organizations and advocates ought to be concerned about governmental process.
Update, 2017-09-26, 18:06 EDT
What `near classified` involves is described here. It turns out `near classified information` is `controlled unclassified information`. Information is classified if its release does harm to the United States. But the memorandum in question creates a new category of information `United States Government information`, a category which suggests that there is information which is the property of the United States government and no one else, no matter how it was derived. It also fails to answer the question of exactly who is harmed should such information be revealed? Is the United States harmed? If so, why isn’t the information classified? If the United States is not harmed, are officials harmed? Why should they be protected, or their deliberations shielded from public scrutiny? If officials are not harmed, are they inconvenienced by revelations? If officials are not harmed, is it that there’s a desire there be no deliberation regarding these issues?
So what exactly is this `controlled unclassified information` about? Is it possible to prosecute someone for revealing it? Under what statute?
See, too, Minster, Ohio:
Hat tip to Paul Lauenstein.
Wonder why other towns aren’t that smart?
You want to sell that house, right? You want to buy a house? Why oughtn’t the recurring costs of operating a home be a factor?
Especially it’s energy costs. U.S. homeowners spend an average of over $2000 a year on energy costs. That’s not because electricity and energy prices are high. That’s principally because many homes are not built efficiently, are not inspected for energy efficiency, and because they use antiquated systems for heating, cooling, and supplying hot water.
Do you think a developer or a real estate agent is going to point out that a home is a lemon as far as energy use goes? No, they’ll probably put down people who have solar panels (“They’re so ugly”) or air pump condensers around their home (“Just think of what that does for resale values!”). Well, it’s wrong. A long-running study from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found that homes with solar panels sell for about 4% more than matched pair controls without solar, or about US$3.80/Watt of installed solar panels.
Energy efficiency measures improve home values as well, as can be seen at UtilityScore. Now, for the first time, energy efficiency scores are available to many candidate buyers who check listings at Redfin, Hotpads, or RealEstate.com. Details and explanations are available here, and advantages for buyers who check listings at these premium sites detailed here.
So, are you considering selling a home in Westwood or Wellesley or Dover or Weston or Waltham, Massachusetts? Are you considering building one? Check out what high efficiency energy measures can do for you, solar PV on your roof or property, and air source heat pumps for heating, cool, and even providing hot water. And for the value of your home. See how.
HOW ON-SITE ENERGY SOLUTIONS CAN HELP SAVE THE GRID
The traditional power grid is under tremendous pressure. In many places, infrastructure needs to be upgraded. Extreme weather and cybersecurity are constant concerns. These challenges threaten entire communities and businesses, from hospital networks to manufacturing plants and university systems. Technology now offers more solutions than early energy pioneers could’ve fathomed as they designed the central grid some 150 years ago. There are now more ways to support and complement the grid than ever before. It’s time to tap into these innovations.
Some utilities like our own Eversource and National Grid sometimes claim that adding additional variable energy, like renewables, without adding additional natural gas capacity is a recipe for grid unreliability. More than the possibility of brownouts mid-winter, however, is the threat of disruption due to storm events, whether tropical, nor’easter, or snowstorms. Florida Light & Power reportedly spent US$3 billion preparing for Hurricane Irma, and, yet, they still suffered major outages. To the end customer, it doesn’t matter if the outage results from a brownout, or because the utility has an unreliable distribution network.
Spatially distributed renewable energy, sometimes backed by storage, demand response and efficiency measures can solve these problems. ISO-NE reports that their forecast shows flat or lower demand, whether regular or peak, no congestion, and more solar.
New England has been plagued by a growing reliance on natural gas — a problem that was especially exposed during the 2014 polar vortex — but the region’s grid operator said slowing demand growth, with the helped of energy efficiency, is mitigating worries about meeting peak needs.
“The region has reached a turning point in addressing several key challenges to system reliability,” the grid operator said in its annual system planning document. “New England increasingly relies on natural-gas-fired generation, which can expose the region to significant energy supply, reliability, and price issues. … The integration into the New England system of energy efficiency and variable energy resources, including wind and PV, also help address fuel-certainty issues” …
Without new solar and energy efficiency, ISO New England said annual and peak demand would both be rising, at 1% and 1.3% annually, respectively.
(From Utility Dive.)
From Siemens. Like our EV charger:
I decided to do a quick literature search on the impacts of climate change upon ecosystems and migration patterns. I could have kept the list private, but why not make it public?
Not all these articles are purely about the intended subject. As is often the case, the search snagged some articles which are unrelated on the face of it, but look interesting, so I kept them.
Governments juggle too many interests to drive global action on climate change. But the insurance industry is ideally placed. With annual premiums amounting to between US$4 trillion and [US]$5 trillion, or about 6% of world gross domestic product (GDP), the industry’s future profitability hinges on limiting the risks of climate change …
The costs of climate-related damage will grow as the world warms. For the United States, the impact on agriculture, crime, storms, energy, human mortality and labour will cost around 1% of GDP for each 1°C increase in global average temperature . If a similar picture holds worldwide, each 1°C rise will cause about [US]$1 trillion of extra damage per year. For present temperatures above the 1980–2010 average, this equates to about 0.4% of world GDP — damages that are growing at around 0.1–0.2% per decade [1,2] …
Two other trends add pressure. Commercial banks, investment funds, university endowments and pension funds are shifting their portfolios away from fossil fuels and towards low-carbon options. They are driven by the fear that trillions of dollars of carbon-intensive assets could be ‘stranded’ as they become unburnable . If assets lose value, so will companies and their investors, including insurance firms …
Instead, we propose a levy managed by the insurance industry to fund adaptation and the low-carbon transition (see ‘Energy levy’). Like a carbon or energy tax, it would have the advantage that the revenues go solely into adaptation and mitigation, not government or individual spending. It would have the same value internationally, be led by business and be set by an objective measure. We believe that the levy could be paid voluntarily. Large petroleum companies have called for a realistic carbon price to increase the pace of low-carbon investments; an insurance levy would be equivalent. Companies that pay up will attract good publicity and may reduce the risks of future litigation. Governments could legislate that it must be paid, as the United Kingdom has done with Flood Re ….
 Clarke, R. H. Predicting the Price of Carbon (Predict Ability, 2016).
 Maynard, T. & Granger, N. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance — Issues & Practice,
37, 318–339 (2012).
 Fabian, N. Nature, 519, 27–29 (2015).
There was a time a decade or two ago when society could have made a choice to write off our massive investment in a fossil fuel-based economy and begin a policy driven shift towards a cleaner renewable infrastructure that could have forestalled the worst effects of climate change. But the challenges of collective action, a lack of political courage, and the power of incumbent pecuniary interests to capture the levers of power meant we did not. The bill is now coming due.
That means that many of our great, low-lying coastal cities are what we call “stranded assets.” GreenBiz founder Joel Makower defines a stranded asset as “a financial term that describes something that has become obsolete or nonperforming well ahead of its useful life, and must be recorded on a company’s balance sheet as a loss of profit.” Makower was talking about Exxon and other companies that built their businesses on the combustion of climate changing fossil fuels, not cities. But the concept easily transfers from businesses built on carbon to cities threatened by carbon’s impact …
… When the irrational exuberance about the value of coastal real estate pops and thousands of buyers collectively mark down those assets, it will make the housing bubble of ten years ago look like a small blip.
The consequences will reverberate through the economy, through society and through the political landscape. Depending on what Hurricane Irma does, we could get a sobering preview of what that will look like. We have already seen the devastation caused by Hurricane Harvey in Houston, a city that was also built on the flawed founding assumption of permanence. Houston’s city planners and businesses also ignored warnings as far back as 1996 that climate change would bring exactly the kind of disaster they city is currently suffering today. It’s hard to blame them. We’ve all ignored the warnings.
We can’t anymore. Business leaders and politicians need to begin wrapping their heads around the big idea that climate change may mean huge financial losses in the world’s great coastal metropolises.
On 4 September 2017, I added a blog post here titled “On the responsibilities of engineers”. Scientists have responsibilities, too. And I am delighted to say that the National Academies have just demonstrated a proud example of how such responsibilities should be pursued.
On 18th August 2017, the Department of Interior “directed” (actually, “informed”) the Academies that “…it should cease all work on a study of the potential health risks for people living near surface coal mine sites in Central Appalachia.” It gave reasons, but the basic facts are that the Academies will proceed to pursue this study, despite the Department’s request.
As the statement from the Academies states,
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. They operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln.
I enclose the full text of the Academies’ statement below, obtained from their Web site. The study in question is described here. The Academies held their fact-finding public, open meetings in Hazard and Lexington, Kentucky, on 21st and 22nd August 2017.
Lover of math. Bad at drawing.
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