Note that water vapor is essentially at zero concentration above the tropopause, which is at most 16 km high (it varies with latitude and season) because it is too cold for water to survive as gas, or even as liquid. In contrast, direct measurements have shown that CO2 persists, and even varies with concentrations at lower altitudes. See figures below. (Click on image for larger graphic.) (Click on image for larger graphic.)
See https://wordpress.com/view/667-per-cm.net/ Retired data scientist and statistician. Now working projects in quantitative ecology and, specifically, phenology of Bryophyta and technical methods for their study.
Prediction vs Forecasting: Knaub
“Unfortunately, ‘prediction,’ such as used in model-based survey estimation, is a term that is often subsumed under the term ‘forecasting,’ but here we show why it is important not to confuse these two terms.”
In Monte Carlo We Trust
The statistics blog of Matt Asher, actually called the “Probability and Statistics Blog”, but his subtitle is much more appealing. Asher has a Manifesto at http://www.statisticsblog.com/manifesto/.
Prof Paul Pukite’s Web site devoted to energy derived from geological and geophysical processes and categorized according to its originating source.
All about ENSO, and lunar tides (Paul Pukite)
Historically, ENSO has been explained in terms of winds. But recently — and Dr Paul Pukite has insisted upon this for a long time — the oscillation of ENSO has been explained as a large-scale slosh due to lunar tidal forcing.
Bruce Yeany introduces the Flettner Rotor and related science
Why "naive Bayes" is not Bayesian
Explains why the so-called “naive Bayes” classifier is not Bayesian. The setup is okay, but estimating probabilities by doing relative frequencies instead of using Dirichlet conjugate priors or integration strays from The Path.
Busting Myths About Heat Pumps
Heat pumps are perhaps the most efficient heating and cooling systems available. Recent literature distributed by utilities hawking natural gas and other sources use performance figures from heat pumps as they were available 15 years ago. See today’s.
Isaac Held's blog
In the spirit of Ray Pierrehumbert’s “big ideas come from small models” in his textbook, PRINCIPLES OF PLANETARY CLIMATE, Dr Held presents quantitative essays regarding one feature or another of the Earth’s climate and weather system.
Professor Beckwith is, in my book, one of the most insightful and analytical observers on climate I know. I highly recommend his blog, and his other informational products.
Tamino's Open Mind
Open Mind: A statistical look at climate, its science, and at science denial
The Keeling Curve
The first, and one of the best programs for creating a spatially significant long term time series of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. Started amongst great obstacles by one, smart determined guy, Charles David Keeling.
I have used dlm almost exclusively, except when extreme efficiency was required. Since Jouni Helske's KFAS was rewritten, though, I'm increasingly drawn to it, because the noise sources it supports are more diverse than dlm's. KFAS uses the notation and approaches of Durbin, Koopman, and Harvey.
``The real problem is that programmers have spent far too much time worrying about efficiency in the wrong places and at the wrong times; premature optimization is the root of all evil (or at least most of it) in programming.'' Professor Donald Knuth, 1974
HOW DOES THE CO2 CONCENTRATION VARY VERTICALLY ACROSS THE TROPOSPHERE FROM MID TROPOSPHERE TO TROPOPAUSE?
Abshire, James B., Anand Ramanathan, Haris Riris, Jianping Mao, Graham R. Allan, William E. Hasselbrack, Clark J. Weaver, and Edward V. Browell. “Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentration and range using a pulsed direct-detection IPDA lidar.” Remote Sensing 6, no. 1 (2014): 443-469.
See newly added table at bottom of post showing summary from the above reference.
CO2 concentration depends upon geography because of surface production or absorption. In the case of Iowa, it’s agriculture.
Tropopause is generally accepted to be about 10 km.